Naturopathic medicine is a distinct system of medicine for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of human disease and impairment. It stresses health maintenance, disease prevention, patient education, and patient responsibilities and emphases the treatment of the whole person rather than just treating the disease. Unlike most other health care systems, naturopathic medicine is not identified with any particular therapy, but with a philosophy of life, health and disease – Vis Medicatrix Naturae, “the healing power of nature.” Fundamental to this belief is a deep confidence in the ability of the body/mind to heal itself given the opportunity. All true healing is the result of the whole organism’s inherent and natural capacity, and it could be said “desire,” to be as healthy as it can be. Naturopathic physicians help to remove the obstacles to cure and employ natural therapies that strengthen and stimulate each person’s own healing processes.

History and the Formative Years
Naturopathic medicine grew out of alternative healing systems of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but traces its philosophical roots to the vitalistic school of medicine of Ancient Greece (circa 400 BC). Over the centuries since this time, the two competing philosophies of medicine, vitalistic (now called natural medicine) and mechanistic (now called allopathic or conventional medicine), have alternately diverged and converged, influencing and shaping one another.

Dr. Benedict Lust was the founder of naturopathy and the man who sustained and popularized it. Lust had been exposed to a wide range of practitioners and practices of natural healing arts. He was a student of Father Kneipp, a great practitioner of hydrotherapy (water therapy). Lust brought Kneipp’s hydrotherapy with him to America from Germany in 1892. In 1902, he founded the American School of Naturopathy. The years from 1900 to 1917 were formative ones for naturopathic medicine in America as the various forms of natural medicines were combined into one eclectic system. Here the American dietetic, hygienic, physical culture, hydrotherapy, spinal manipulation, mental and emotion healing, Thompsonian/eclectic (botanical/herbal medicine), and homeopathic systems of natural healing were all merged into naturopathy.

The Halcyon Years
From 1918 to 1937, great interest and support for naturopathic medicine emerged from the public.  In the early 1920s naturopathic movement reached its peak in terms of public awareness and interest. Conventions nationwide were well attended by professionals, the public, and even several members of Congress. And many states enacted naturopathic licensure laws.

The naturopathic journals of the 1920s and 1930s provide much valuable insight into the prevention of disease and the promotion of health. Much of the dietary advice focused on correcting poor eating habits, including the lack of fiber in the diet and an over reliance upon red meat as a protein source. Ironically, in the 1990s, the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute confirmed the early assertions of naturopathic physicians that such dietary habits could lead to degenerative diseases, and only now are advocating for the very same dietary principles that naturopaths always advocated.

Suppression and Decline
From 1938 – 1970, growing political and social dominance of allopathic medicine, fueled by the drug industry’s financial backing, led to the legal and economic suppression of naturopathic healing. In the mid 1920s the editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association made a mission of attacking naturopathic physicians, accusing them of quackery. Public infatuation with technology, introduction of “miracle drugs,” the development of surgery and other high-tech medical interventions, the growing political power and sophistication of the AMA, and the death of Benedict Lust in 1945 all combined to cause the decline of naturopathic medicine and natural healing in the United States.

With the AMA’s new political power they were able to not only get more restrictive medical practice laws passed but were also successful in getting many state naturopathic licensure laws repealed. With these political developments the courts began to take the view that naturopathic physicians were not true doctors. Lack of insurance coverage, lost court battles, and a hostile legislative perspective progressively restricted practices and eliminated funding for naturopathic education.

Naturopathic Medicine Reemerges
The back-to-nature, ecology and women’s movements of the late 1960s, the public’s growing awareness of the importance of nutrition, and America’s disenchantment with organized institutional medicine (when its limitations, dehumanization, and prohibitive expense became apparent) resulted in increasing respect for alternative medicine and the rejuvenation of naturopathy. A new wave of students was attracted to the philosophical precepts of the naturopathic profession, bringing an appreciation for the appropriate use of science and modern college education.

In order for the naturopathic profession to move back into the mainstream, it needed to establish accredited institutions, perform credible research, and establish itself as an integral part of the health care system. In 1978, after twenty years with only one legitimate college graduating naturopathic physicians (National College of Naturopathic Medicine), the first new naturopathic medical school was opened. In 1987 Bastyr University  became the first naturopathic college to become accredited. The Council on Naturopathic Medical Education (CNME) is the Federally recognized accrediting agency for naturopathic medical colleges. Visit the CNME website for more information on accredited naturopathic medical colleges in the U.S. and Canada. 

With these credible colleges, active research, and an appreciation of the appropriate application of science to natural medicine education and clinical practice, naturopathic medicine began its journey back to the mainstream. While the naturopathic physicians of the past century were astute clinical observers, they lacked the scientific tools to assess the validity of the concepts. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of research has provided the scientific documentation for concepts of naturopathic medicine, and the new breed of scientifically trained naturopathic physicians is utilizing this research to continue developing the profession. There are now naturopathic licensure laws in Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, Oregon, Utah, Vermont and Washington. Naturopaths also practice in other states under other laws (i.e., as licensed acupuncturists or chiropractors) or without official government sanction (i.e., as nutritionists or natural health consultants). 

A dark side of the growth in popularity of naturopathic medicine, and alternative medicine in general, is the proliferation of “N.D.” and other doctor “degrees” by mail. With “training” measured in months instead of years and without rigorous supervised clinical training, it is clearly far below American education standards to offer a doctor degree in health care through distance learning. But beyond failing conventional standards for doctoral degrees, these programs are also not accredited by agencies that meet any national standards. Thus, there is little accountability administratively, financially or for what is being taught. Because naturopathic physicians are only licensed in thirteen states anyone can use the title in the other 35 states (Arkansas and Florida recently passed laws outlawing this practice). As naturopathic medicine has gained more respect with the health care community, media and general public, the “N.D.” has become increasingly desirable and marketable. Without state regulation these correspondence doctors may mislead the public as to their training (whether intentional or not) and can create significant risk to the public’s health. In 1999 the tragic death of a eight-year-old diabetic girl in North Carolina graphically illustrated this problem. She was taken off her insulin by a person with a correspondence degree who was claiming to be a doctor. The mother is reported to have said, “I thought he was a real naturopathic doctor.” [To learn more about diploma mills see the an article in the Chronicle of Higher Education or the Oregon State Office of Authorization website on diploma mills. These do not list the “naturopathic” diploma mills but gives a good over view of the problem. To learn more about how to evaluate someone’s credentials see Credentials, Diploma Mills and Alternative Medicine on this website.]

The Future
Naturopathic medicine is at the forefront of the paradigm shift occurring in medicine. The scientific tools now exist to assess and appreciate many aspects of natural medicine. It is now common for conventional medical organizations that in the past have spoken out strongly against naturopathic medicine to endorse such naturopathic techniques as lifestyle modification, stress reduction, exercise, and toxin reduction.

Most importantly, consumers are demanding a wider range of health care services. Patients want to start with the least invasive of techniques. Naturopathic physicians fill a gap, answer a demand and bring to the public a “bilingual” health care provider with an understanding of both natural and allopathic medicine. They are the knowledgeable gateway to “integrative medicine” a true ‘health’ care system.

(Adapted from Fundamentals of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ed. Marc S. Micozzi, MD, PhD, “Natural Medicine” by Joseph E. Pizzorno, JR., Churchill Livingstone Inc., New York, 1996.)


Ozone gas (molecular O3) does not act as a drug. It is a biological modifier.

Ozone is formed when the oxygen atoms in oxygen (molecular O2) are split and then recombine into a triplet molecule.

90% of the earth’s ozone layer is formed when the sun’s ultraviolet energy hits oxygen.

The remaining 10% of the earth’s ozone layer is generated by the  Catatumbo Lightning storms in Venezuela.  This phenomenon is capable of producing 1.176 million lightning bolts a year.  When lightning hits oxygen it generates ozone.

In 1857 Werner von Siemens built the first superior ozone generating electrode.  Siemens is considered the Founding Father of Electrical Engineering.  He invented the elevator, trolley bus, loudspeaker, dynamo, and the tubes that Rontgen used for generating x-rays.

In 1873 Fox discovered that ozone was a potent anti-microbial agent. As far back as 1881 ozone was used as a disinfectant 

The discovery crossed the ocean to North America and in 1885, the Florida Medical Association published the first textbook on medical applications of ozone, written by Dr. Kenworth

Dr. John Kellogg described ozone use in his book on diphtheria.

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)  patented his first ozone generator in 1896; and in 1900 founded Nikola Tesla “Tesla Ozone Co.”, manufacturer of generators for medical use. Tesla was the first to ozonate olive oil.

According to Life Magazine’s special issue of September, 1997, Tesla is among the 100 most famous people of the last 1,000 years

In 1898 Drs. Thauerkauf and Luth create in Germany the Institute of Oxygen-Ozone Therapy and publish the first studies in animals.

In 1911, Dr. Noble Eberhart, head of the Department of Physiology of Loyola Chicago University, in the “Manual of High Frequency Operation,” states that he used ozone to treat tuberculosis, anemia, chlorosis (iron deficiency anemia), tinnitus, whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis, hay fever, insomnia, pneumonia, diabetes, gout and syphilis. He created the first university teaching center dedicated among other things to ozone therapy.

Dr. Blass founds in 1913 the first German association of ozone therapy. In 1915, Dr. Wolf, chief surgeon of the medical services of the German army, extends its use for topical treatment of infected wounds, frozen foot, gangrene and decubitus ulcers. 

Dr. Wolf later published Medical Ozone, the a classic book about ozone therapy.

A Swiss dentist, Dr. Fish published in 1932 the applications of ozone in dentistry to treat caries, and patented the first device specifically for this application, the Cytozon.In 1957 the emergence of plastics resistant to ozone leads German physician Dr. Hänsler to manufacture the first modern ozone generator, which modern day generators base themselves on.

In 1961 Dr. Hans Wolff developed the major and minor autohemotherapy techniques which even today are the standards for modern ozone therapy.

In the 1980’s Renate Viebahn-Hansler wrote the classic text, The Medical Use of Ozone in which she describes innumerable local and system applications of ozone therapy.

In 2010 the International Scientific Committee on Ozone wrote The Madrid Declaration which serves as a standard for ozone therapy.  The Madrid Declaration was revised in 2015 and contains references and instructions for every kind of ozone application currently used in the scientific ozone community.

——The entirety of this information was compiled and written by Dr. Frank Shallenberger


Edward J. McCabe: Health journalist who reported success of oxygen therapy. Sentenced to 3 years in prison on the pre-text of tax evasion 1999 (and served 2 years).

Dr. William F. Koch: Medical doctor, Professor of chemistry, histology and physiology. Inventor of “Glyoxylide catalyst” cure for cancer. Sued by FDA but was acquitted after 600 doctors testified in his favour. Died of poisoning, 1967.

Dr. F.M. Eugene Blass: Developer of “Homozon™” (the original oxygen therapy product) – murdered outside his house, same year and month as Dr. Koch.

Dr. Basil Earle Wainright: Physicist – inventor of polyatomic apheuresis oxygen therapy. Imprisoned for 4 years. Claims he survived six assassination attempts whilst in prison.

Dr. George A. Freibott, IV. President of the American Naturopathic Association, consultant for International Association for Oxygen Therapy, US Government approved and internationally accepted expert witness on oxygen/oxidation therapies. Survived numerous assassination attempts and several anonymous phone calls threatening him with his life.

Dr. James Boyce: Turned 254 people HIV+ to HIV- using ozone therapy: Charged with using unproven methods and sentenced to 5 years in prison. Had his medical license revoked.

Ken Thiefault sold ozone generators: Sentenced to 7 years in prison for making medical claims for ozone generators. His wife was sentenced to three years.